PRAXIS II Special Education: Teaching Speech to Students with Language Impairments Exam

This exam is designed for individuals, who would like to teach students with language impairments in grades preschool through 12. You will be given two hours to complete this 120 multiple-choice question exam. The exam can be broken down into the following sections:
Foundations of Speech and Language Development – 30 questions
Identification and Assessment of Communication Impairments – 30 questions
Planning and Managing the Learning Environment – 36 questions
Legal, Ethical, and Professional Aspects of the Job – 24 questions

Foundations of Speech and Language Development:
This section of the exam will cover topics such as the definitions and basic elements of speech and language, oral and written language modalities, typical and atypical disfluencies, and the implications of cultural and linguistic diversity as they relate to the acquisition of speech and language.

Identification and Assessment of Communication Impairments:
This section of the exam will cover topics like the basic terminology associated with assessment, gathering background information, adapting and modifying assessments, and record creating and keeping.

Planning and Managing the Learning Environment:
This section of the exam will cover a variety of topics including service delivery models and collaboration, supporting students’ curricular needs, maintaining an effective learning environment, motivation and reinforcement, and functional communication skills.

Legal, Ethical, and Professional Aspects of the Job:
This section of the exam will cover topics such as federal and state requirements and major legislation, components of IFSPs and IEPs including transition planning, current research and best practices, and collaborating and communicating with stakeholders.

PRAXIS II Teaching Speech To Students With Language Impairments Practice Questions

1. In spontaneous language, the speaker:

A. chooses the topic
B. organizes his thoughts
C. puts together words
D. All of the above

2. A sensorineural hearing impairment occurs in the:

A. inner ear
B. middle ear
C. outer and middle ear
D. middle and inner ear

3. How many years does it take to comprehend the nuances of conversation?

A. One to three
B. Three to five
C. Five to nine
D. Six to ten

4. American Sign Language is different from other English-based sign language. Each has its own:

A. syntax
B. grammar
C. vocabulary
D. All of the above

5. The deaf culture includes:

A. people who are hard of hearing
B. parents of deaf children
C. sign language interpreters
D. All of the above

Answer Key For Teaching Speech To Students With Language Impairments

1. Answer: D

Short-term memory is the ability to retain data for as long as the person is focused on the particular information. Examples of short-term memory issues: knowing the history dates the night before but not remembering them the next morning.

Long-term memory stores learned data until the information is needed and retrieved. If someone has a long-term memory disability, he would be diagnosed with some type of retardation because he would be unable to function in daily life without assistance.

In spontaneous language, the speaker chooses the topic, organizes his thoughts, and puts together words before he speaks. In demand language, the listener is expected to get his thoughts together, find the correct words, and answer appropriately in a split second. A child with a language disability has no problem with spontaneous language. When he voluntarily answers, he may sound normal. But when called on to answer, he may respond with “Huh?” or “What?” or not answer at all. The child chattering just a moment earlier may be completely unable to respond. The inconsistency can be startling.

2. Answer: A

The American Heritage College Dictionary defines deafness as “partially or completely lacking in the sense of hearing.” It can affect one or both ears but always means a complete loss of the ability to perceive sound.

The dictionary defines hearing impairment as “having a diminished or defective sense of hearing.” The degree can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound. There are three types:

  • CONDUCTIVE HEARING IMPAIRMENT occurs in the outer or middle ear and reduces the person’s ability to hear sound efficiently. It is often possible to treat this type medically and/or surgically.
  • SENSORINEURAL hearing impairment occurs in the inner ear (cochlea) and sometimes impacts the hearing nerve that goes from the inner ear to the brain. It is usually permanent but may be helped with a hearing aid. This type of loss not only affects the ability to hear sounds clearly, but also the ability to understand speech as well.
  • MIXED HEARING LOSS is a combination of both conductive and sensorineural hearing impairment.

3. Answer: C

Language development is basically the same whether learning the native tongue as an infant or a second language later in life. The person listens to the words, determines what objects or concepts they represent, and learns to pronounce them, which later leads to reading and writing them. The time it takes to learn a language is based on many factors: social, economic, personal, and the unique situation of the person. Someone with a hearing impairment has additional challenges. No matter what age, mastering any language takes contact with people who speak it fluently and years of practice. Learning a language using material that is interesting to and meaningful for the student in a stress-free environment is optimal.

Studies have shown it takes two to three years to acquire basic conversational skills (basic interpersonal communication skills-BICS) and five to nine years to comprehend the nuances (cognitive academic language proficiency-CALP). Based on these studies, teachers need to know the cognitive skills of the student and plan lessons and activities just a bit above his level, so his fluency will improve.

4. Answer: D

American Sign Language (ASL, also known as Ameslan) has developed over the years into one of the most complete and expressive sign language systems in the world. It is estimated that in America anywhere from five hundred thousand to two million people use ASL; it is the fourth most used language in the United States.

Other than citing the establishment of schools for the hearing impaired, it is difficult to document exactly when ASL began. What is known is that hearing-impaired people began talking to each other and finding ways to communicate with the hearing population quite early on. For example, it is known the American Plains Indians used sign language for intertribal communication. In Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, hereditary deafness was common; its sign language can be traced back to ancestors in County Kent, England.

ASL is different than British Sign Language or any other English-based sign language. Each has its own syntax, grammar, and vocabulary. People who use these systems exclusively may have difficulty understanding one another because each is “speaking” a unique language.

5. Answer: D

While deafness is relatively rare, it has its own culture composed of people who consider deafness to be an identity like a minority ethnic group instead of an audiological status or physical disability. When used as a cultural identification the word is often capitalized. These communities include people who are deaf, hard of hearing, and those who have shared experiences, such as parents of deaf children and sign language interpreters. According to Charlotte Baker-Shenk and Carol Padden, authors of American Sign Language: A Look at Its History, Structure and Community, a person is Deaf if he or she “identifies him/herself as a member of the Deaf community and other members accept that person as part of the community.”

Historically, deaf people have been expected to adapt to the hearing world. However, the world is changing. In 1988, students at Gallaudet University forced the school to appoint the first deaf president in its history. The students wanted a leader who understood and related to their particular issues. The student strike was likened to the civil rights movement of the 1960s.