The PRAXIS II Early Childhood Education Exam (5025) is designed for individuals who have completed their undergraduate degree in Early Childhood education and would like to teach preschool through primary grades. The exam has 120 multiple choice questions and you will be given 2 hours to complete it. The test can be broken down into the following sections:
Language and Literacy – 36 questions
Mathematics – 30 questions
Social Studies – 17 questions
Science – 17 questions
Health and Physical Education; Creative and Performing Arts – 20 questions
Language and Literacy
The language and literacy section of the exam will cover topics like how to help students develop an understanding of print awareness, the role of phonological awareness in literacy development, the role of fluency in literacy development, and how features and structures of text across genres affect comprehension.
The mathematics section of the exam will cover topics like the concepts and skills related to the place-value system, the skills and concepts related to operations and properties of operations involving whole numbers, the multiple representations and meanings of a fraction, and the skills and concepts for working with patterns.
The social studies section will test your knowledge on topics like the components of culture and why the study of culture is important, ways in which human beings seek to understand their historical roots and to locate themselves in time, and the importance of civic participation and how people create and change structures of power and government.
The science section of the exam covers the basic phenomena of the physical world, the basic phenomena of Earth and space, living organisms and natural systems, methods of facilitating problem solving through inventing solutions to simple problems, and appropriate technology to support scientific inquiry across domains.
Health and Physical Education; Creative and Performing Arts
The health and physical education section will test your knowledge on topics like health promotion, wellness, disease prevention, the importance of maintaining a healthy and nutritious diet, the impact of health on learning and development across the content areas, the components of health-related fitness, and the ways in which physical activity provides lifelong opportunities for learning.
PRAXIS II Early Childhood Education Practice Questions
1. Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development include:
C. concrete operational
D. formal operational
E. All of the above
2. Which of the following characteristics is not part of cognitive development?
3. Which of the following is not related to a child’s temperament?
C. Hair color
E. Attention span
4. Reasons for assessing children’s academic growth include:
A. helps placement and promotion decisions
B. aid in designing curriculum
C. leads to improvements in instruction
D. better classroom management
E. All of the above
5. Which of the following should not be important when developing assessment strategies for young children?
A. Parents’ educational background
B. Limitations of grades in general
C. Knowledge gained
D. Skills attained
E. Improvement in social interactions
Answer Key For Early Childhood Education
1. Answer: E
Based on the observation, that unlike adults, young children keep making the same mistakes, Piaget’s theory of cognitive development examines the premise that children’s thought processes are innately different from adults. His theory maintains that the validity of new information is confirmed from knowledge learned earlier. He believes there is a chronological order to the way children structure data and that they use old knowledge to test new information against its usefulness in the real world.
The ages used in Piaget’s four developmental stages are approximate because studies show a huge variation between individual children, meaning the ages should not be used as rigid criteria The stages are:
Sensorimotor, birth to two years: Children learn through their senses.
Preoperational, two to seven years: Children acquire motor skills.
Concrete Operational, seven to eleven years: Children learn to apply logic to situations.
Formal Operational, eleven years forward: Children develop abstract reasoning ability.
2. Answer: B
The American Heritage College Dictionary defines cognition as the “mental process or faculty of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.” The dictionary defines cognitive science as “the study of the nature of various mental tasks and the processes that enable them to be performed.”
Using these dictionary definitions, cognitive development is the acquisition of and mental processes for knowing, awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment. The study of cognitive development is observing, analyzing, and predicting how individuals acquire and perform various mental tasks.
Early theories of cognitive development believed the individual progresses through various stages from infancy to adulthood, and growth stops at a certain point or after a goal has been attained. Later theories suggest that acquisition of these complex mental processes is a lifelong learning process that starts in infancy and continues until death. Studies proceeding from the latter premise investigate both innate and environmental influences on the growth of cognitive development.
3. Answer: C
The American Heritage College Dictionary defines temperament as “the manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting typical of a specific person.” Studies have shown (and casual observation will agree) that a child’s temperament has a direct influence on how he behaves in a particular situation or reacts to a particular stimuli. For example, if a child has a short attention span, he will be challenged in any learning environment that requires him to sit still and focus for long periods of time. If a child is shy or easily intimidated by adults, he will have a difficult time relating to his teacher, which will have a direct impact on his educational experiences. As the child ages, he will exert more control over his environmental choices which will affect his interactions. As a result, children usually choose people with whom they are comfortable and situations they perceive to be nonthreatening.
4. Answer: E
Parents and teachers want and need to know how children are progressing in learning age-appropriate tasks and acquiring age-appropriate skills. If problems are diagnosed early, they can be addressed, and many times, corrected before they become serious roadblocks in development. One cautionary note: Be careful of attaching a good or bad label; they tend to follow a child throughout his entire educational experience.
Determining children’s progress helps make placement and promotion decisions, aids in the design of curriculum and other programs, and can lead to improvements in instructional methods and classroom management. Assessments of young children, especially in first and second grades, should always consider four major areas: knowledge, skills, temperament, and feelings. Adding observations made during informal work and play situations helps minimize possible errors inherent in evaluating young children. Assessments should include a balance between standardized evaluations and specific progress made by individual students.
5. Answer: A
Testing children before the third grade or approximately age eight is risky business. Children this age are notoriously poor test-takers because they don’t understand the concept or why the person giving the test doesn’t already know the answers. Studies have shown that the younger the child who takes a test, the more errors made in interpreting the results.
When planning strategies to evaluate young children, teachers and parents should recognize the limitations of report cards and grades in general. Children develop at different rates, so their performance is uneven, inconsistent, and variable. Children should be assessed on general age-appropriate knowledge gained and skills attained, how much progress they have made learning to control their behavior, and their overall improvement in social interactions. Children should also be encouraged to evaluate their own progress. Most children this age are realistic about their progress and will ask for help when they need it.