The PRAXIS II Agriculture (5701) exam is a two hour assessment exam for future high school teachers who plan to teach agriculture to juniors and seniors, and who have bachelor’s degrees in the education of agriculture. There are seven areas that are addressed in the PRAXIS II: Agriculture exam, and the 120 multiple choice questions are divided as follows:
14 questions covering Agribusiness Systems
20 questions covering Animal Systems
14 questions covering Food Science and Biotechnology Systems
16 questions covering Environmental and Natural Resource Systems
20 questions covering Plant Systems
18 questions covering Power, Structural, and Technical Systems
18 questions covering Leadership and Career Development
In the agribusiness systems area, questions will expect you to know the principles of capitalism and entrepreneurship in the agribusiness industry, the management skills needed to organize an agribusiness, and the marketing principles needed to accomplish agribusiness goals.
The questions relating to animal systems will cover information regarding the historical development and trends of the industry, the basic principles of animal nutrition, and the principles of animal production.
The area of food science and biotechnology systems will cover topics such as the major issues and trends affecting the food production industry, safe laboratory procedure, and the use of genetic engineering in the industry.
The environmental and natural resource systems questions will address the various ecosystems of the environment, the natural cycles related to environmental and natural resource management, and the impact of land use on resources.
The questions in the area of plant systems will cover safety issues related to plant systems, the historical development of plant science, and the principles of landscape and floral design.
Questions relating to power, structural, and technical systems will focus on electricity and electrical wiring, various power and energy sources, and metal fabrication.
Finally, questions pertaining to leadership and career development will cover the principles of leadership, the foundational areas of career development, and communication skills.
Examinees are expected to demonstrate knowledge and the capability to implement these topics in the real world.
PRAXIS II Agriculture Practice Questions
1. Agricultural science is an interdisciplinary science that requires knowledge of:
A. physical science
B. social science
C. earth science
E. All of the above
2. Practical lessons learned by studying agricultural science include:
A. interconnectedness of earth’s resources
B. management of natural resources
C. care of the environment
D. humane treatment of all living things
E. All of the above
3. Which of the following is composed of all living organisms?
4. The concepts involved in the transmission of genes include:
A. hereditary events
D. common ancestry
E. All of the above
5. Which of the following is not part of biodiversity?
C. Man-made objects
Answer Key For Agriculture
1. Answer: E
Webster’s New Explorer Desk Encyclopedia defines agriculture as the “science or art of cultivating the soil, growing and harvesting crops, and raising livestock. More of the world’s aggregate manpower is devoted to agriculture than to all other occupations combined.” Using this basic definition, agricultural science is the study and care of soil, plants, and animals and how their relationships produce and process food, fiber, and fuel. It is an interdisciplinary science that requires knowledge in and understanding of a wide range of fields such as:
PHYSICAL SCIENCE is the study of the interaction of matter, motion, energy, space, and time.
LIFE SCIENCE or biology is the study of living organisms, their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution.
SOCIAL SCIENCE studies human behavior.
EARTH SCIENCE studies all things related to the earth: geology, hydrology, meteorology, and oceanography.
ENGINEERING is the application of physical, mathematical, and mechanical principles to design, construct, and operate structures.
MATHEMATICS explains the logic of and relationship between numbers.
ECONOMICS studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
2. Answer: E
Students who study agricultural science develop an understanding of the interconnectedness of all the earth’s resources: plant, animal, human. They learn the importance of managing scarce natural resources and caring for the environment. They discover the necessity of humane treatment of all living things as scientific and technological breakthroughs change the relationships and interactions between and among species. Students become aware of social issues such as food security as well as the reasons for and effects of both subsistence and commercial farming practices.
Another result of studying agricultural science is the growing ability to think critically, design workable solutions to complex problems, and make thoughtful decisions. Since it is a global, interdisciplinary field, students learn to interact with a diverse cross-section of scientists, researchers, and environmentalists from many nations. Each person brings a unique perspective to universal issues based on experiences and conditions in his homeland. From planning, production, processing, and distribution, an individual country’s economy and fiscal policies has an impact on the global marketplace.
3. Answer: A
The earth sciences or geosciences study the earth, the only known life-bearing planet. This field is concerned with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. These three working together create the conditions needed to sustain the biosphere, which is composed of all living organisms, i.e., life science or biology.
GEOLOGY is the study of the “origin, history, and structure of the earth” and its lithosphere. This earth science looks at when the earth was formed, how and why it formed as it did, and how and why it changed through the millennia. It studies soil and minerals, the core, the mantle tectonic and seismic activity.
OCEANOGRAPHY is the “exploration of the ocean and its phenomena.” Similarly, HYDROLOGY studies the “properties, distribution, and effects of water on the earth’s surface, soil, rocks, and atmosphere.” Both disciplines study water systems and marine life-the earth’s hydrosphere.
ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES study the “gaseous mass surrounding the earth”-its atmosphere. This field includes meteorology, climate and weather, and their effects on the earth and its organisms.
(NOTE: Definitions are from The American Heritage College Dictionary).
4. Answer: E
Heredity is the transfer of traits and characteristics via DNA (the chromosome component that carries genetic information) from the parents to the offspring. It is seen in all life forms from the simplest one-celled organism to complex plant and animal species. Offspring resemble their parents, but they are not identical. There are subtle differences between the generations.
There are several fundamental concepts involved in the transmission of genes from one generation to the next:
HEREDITY EVENTS control the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next
DNA is the primary molecule for storage, transmission, and expression of characteristics.
VARIATIONS IN GENES (DNA sequences on chromosomes) are called alleles, and inheritance patterns can normally be predicted.
MUTATIONS cause alterations in genetic information, which produces variations in peoples.
RANDOM MUTATIONS can be affected by natural selection and genetic drift.
Evolutionary theory argues for a COMMON ANCESTRY for the origin, development, and diversity of all life on earth.
5. Answer: C
Biodiversity (biological diversity) encompasses all living things and the ecosystems they create. It is The Web of Life that has evolved over 3.5 billion years by natural processes and human influences. There is an enormous variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms; scientists estimate there may be as many as 100 million species, although only about 1.75 million have been identified.
Biodiversity includes the chromosomes, genes, and DNA of all living species. It also includes earth’s complex ecosystems in deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, bodies of water, and agricultural areas. To study an ecosystem properly, all living creatures (including humans) that populate the interactive community and share the air, water, and soil must be considered.